ENCYCLOPEDIE -DE--LA--LANGUE -FRANCAISE

-ABBAYE

 
 
-LES ARTS
AU TEMPS
DES CAROLINGIENS

 
 
--L'ENLUMINURE

---LE PSAUTIER D'UTRECHT---


Le Psautier d'Utrecht
 
Bibliothek der Reijksuniversiteit Utrecht
Universiteitsbibliotheek, MS 32/484
vers 830

The illustrations for this psalm are set in the Inégal landscape background so universally employed by the illustrators of the manuscript. The occurrence of trees and architectural features in these backgrounds do not of necessity have any bearing on the interpretation of the episodes in the pictures, but are the inheritance of the Hellenistic traditions which lie behind the illustrations of this psalter as has been pointed out by D. T. Tselos

 
 
 
Ex. : Psautier d’Utrecht (Utrecht)
Psaumes : chants de l’Ancien Testament.
Date des années 820-830 = illustration différentes des évangéliaires au fil des psaumes donc au milieu du texte (rapport texte/ image particulier).
Psaumes de David (David supplie Dieu de venir au secours de son peuple) = on représente une scène de siège, de combat avec un palais entouré de remparts et des personnages à l’intérieur + des assiégeants qui arrivent = croquis de petites actions en noir et blanc pour coller avec le texte (ne pas détourner l’attention du texte). Ce qui intéresse les enlumineurs c’est de croquer le mouvement : ici cavaliers qui se précipitent vers la porte avec des chevaux croqués par des traits qui donnent vraiment le mouvement, les postures.
Certaines imprécisions du lieu => sorte de collines croquées : ce qui importe c’est que les personnages aient les pieds sur quelque chose.
A Reims, on essaie de raconter des histoires et les mouvements sont très importants.
B)A Tours
Ex. : Bible de Moutier Grandval (Londres) 37 cm de haut
Environ 835-840 (fait de la période de Louis le Pieux).
A tours, série de manuscrits organisés en bandes avec beaucoup de couleurs et des Bibles racontées en bandes superposées avec des épisodes qui se succèdent sans quasi-interruption. Les bandes sont séparées les unes des autres par des traits foncés. Ici bande de terre et de ciel + personnages séparés par un décor végétal quelque peu schématisé.
" Création " => création par dieu d’Adam puis d’Eve avec une côte d’Adam, pêché puis
chassés du paradis et donc doivent travailler.
Personnages statiques, plus ordinaires (que dans le psautier d’Utrecht), très répétitifs et simples donc facilité de compréhension => on cherche à raconter des histoires.
Ex. : 1ère Bible de Charles le Chauve (B.N.F.)
Charnière entre Louis le Pieux et Charles le Chauve.
Pour l’abbé de St Martin de Tours.
Toujours représentations en bandes + beaucoup de couleurs. Ici histoire de St Jérôme (grand traducteur de la Bible), beaucoup plus, l’habillement est mis en scène et raffiné (différent de la Bible de Moutier Grandval). Décor architectural bien représenté, personnages plus déliés, mouvements plus gracieux => aisance.
Toujours désir de raconter de beaux récits.

Furthermore, antique ivories were sometimes recut by Carolingian craftsmen. Also indicating complicated sources are the two ivory covers of the Psalter of Charles the Bald (mid-ninth century), which reproduce two illustrations from the Utrecht Psalter, itself produced under Charlemagne's son, Louis the Pious, at Rheims c. 830 (now at Utrecht). The Utrecht Psalter itself is, in its turn, an imitation of work of the first century AD, in the Hellenistic tradition.40 This important manuscript was surely intended to look antique, for it certainly deceived many nineteenth-century scholars into dating it much too early. Its prestige can be judged by the copies and imitations of it in various media.78 Nor is there any need to suppose that Rome was the exclusive source of Carolingian artistic affectations: certain styles have been discerned in manuscripts from the Aix Court School which make it likely that Byzantine artists, or artists trained in the East or accustomed to copying Byzantine models, were productive there. In other words, the classicism of some of the Carolingian output must have come from Constantinople.38

The outline style of manuscript illumination, referring to book illustrations done entirely in penwork, reached its developmental apex in England during the tenth century C.E., yet unlike the brilliantly realized insular Celtic examples of the eighth century, Britain cannot claim the outline style as its own invention. The stylistic ancestor for most of the works in this style is the Utrecht Psalter (Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, MS 32/484), created at the Benedictine Abbey of Hautvillers in northern France between 816 and 834 C.E. as part of the profusion of the Reims school of manuscript illumination. A marked contrast to the flat, awkward and cartoonish Merovingian style, the calligraphic and comparatively naturalistic quality of outline illumination was doubtless facilitated by the Classical revivalist concerns of the Carolingian Renaissance, and its energetic, appealing character inspired not only direct copies, but merged with other local traditions to create a pan-European transitional style bridging the Carolingian and early Romanesque periods.
 
Utrecht Psalter, fol. 15v.
 
 
Utrecht Psalter, fol. 2v., detail The Utrecht Psalter is generally regarded as the first major, and certainly most influential, manuscript in the outline style.1 The psalter was one of the most important liturgical service books of the Church and one of the most widely owned private books, containing principally the Psalms, and occasionally other texts such as calendars, creeds, and litanies of the Saints. The Utrecht manuscript comprises one hundred eight folia containing the text of the Psalms, the Lord's Prayer, and two creeds (including the Athanasian). Each Psalm is illustrated, and the drawings are unusually literal depictions of the Psalmist's metaphoric language, rather than the more common alluisve interpretations.2 For example, in the illustration for Psalm 11, the phrase "the wicked walk round about" is represented by a group of people circling around a turnstile. Unlike many manuscripts prior to the Utrecht Psalter, the illustrations are not confined within rigid borders but rather are allowed to spread out across the page, creating a fluid landscape of vignettes instead of a compartmentalized, iconic image.
 
Originally, the Utrecht Psalter was believed to have been a production of a much earlier period, perhaps fifth or sixth century in origin.3 This was chiefly due to the fact that many archaic conventions, which had by then fallen out of use in manuscript production, are preserved in the Utrecht Psalter. For example, the Utrecht Psalter is written in rustic capitals, a script that had long passed out of common use at the time of its production, and its headings are in a significantly antiquated uncial style. The interspersion of large capitals throughout the body of the text, as in the Psalter, was a much older technique originally intended to create space for the inclusion of illustrations.4 In the Psalter, however, the placement of such capitals corresponds in no way to the placement of the illustrations, indicating its probable reliance on an earlier model for the arrangement of the text. Furthermore, the pages are created using a tri-columnar layout, also an archaic convention.5
 
 
 
 
http://www.viatores-temporis.de/info/zelte.html (repro noir et blanc)
http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/a/h/ahv103/ (christus patiens)
 
 
 

SOURCES

Illustrations :
 
http://www.auxerre.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/auxerre/img/his/bas_acc.jpg (utrecht-psautier)
http://rubens.anu.edu.au/htdocs/surveys/charlotte/0319/031982.JPG (2 alleluia)
http://wwwetu.utc.fr/~kindelyv/PE/Orgue/Historique/histoire.htm (orgue)
http://vandyck.anu.edu.au/introduction/add/Christ.iconog/jpgs/Ah441-135.JPG (4)
http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/Paleography/Paleography400-1500.html (détail)
http://www.tronchin.com/Art1A/lecture%2021.htm (2folios)
http://www.medieval.pdx.edu/362.830/etc-d1.jpg (charrue)
 

http://www.udel.edu/ArtHistory/nees/209/images/15-12.jpg (fol 1v-2r)
http://www.skriptorium.at/catalog/popup_image.php?image_order=1&pID=129 (fol2v psaume 3)
http://www.medieval.pdx.edu/emed.htm (fol15r)
http://www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture15.html (fol 25r, psaumes 43-44 )
http://www.udel.edu/ArtHistory/nees/209/images/15-13.jpg (fol 29r)
http://vitrine.library.uu.nl/wwwroot/nl/inhoud.htm (fol 59v)
http://faculty.luther.edu/~martinka/art43/daily/2nd/utr.jpg (fol83r)
 
http://www.medieval.pdx.edu/362.830/ps25.jpg (psaume 25)

     

 

 

 

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